When processing images, it is useful to avoid artifacts, in particular when you try to understand biological processes. In the past, I have used natural images (found on internet, grabbed from holiday pictures, ...) without controlling for possible problems.
In particular, digital pictures are taken on pixels which are most often placed on a rectangular grid. It means that if you rotate that image, you may lose information and distort it and thus get wrong results (even for the right algorithm!). Moreover, pictures have a border while natural scenes do not, unless you are looking at it through an aperture. Intuitively, this means that large objects would not fit on the screen and are less informative.
In computer vision, it is easier to handle these problems in Fourier space. There, an image (that we suppose square for simplicity) is transformed in a matrix of coefficients of the same size as the image. If you rotate the image, the Fourier spectrum is also rotated. But as you rotate the image, the information that was in the corners of the original spectrum may span outside the spectrum of the rotated image. Also, the information in the center of the spectrum (around low frequencies) is less relevant than the rest.
Here, we will try to keep as much information about the image as possible, while removing the artifacts related to the process of digitalizing the picture.